Study abroad and brain drain
Some students choose to continue their education in another country for various reasons. They may want to learn the language of the host country, their main resource of first-hand, or you may experience political and social problems in the country, which forced them to go to another country to study (brain drain). Or it could be because familiarity with the culture of other countries; in fact, the cross-cultural impulse was strengthened in the era of globalization. People become known means other countries or strong points in a special academic field and go to get this knowledge.
In some countries there are consultants to study abroad, which have links with universities in several countries, and provide students with the necessary information about the course, payment of scholarships and assistance in carrying out orders and guidance on business visas. Therefore, the tendency to find the right university has become easier.
In the US, the first program of study abroad started in 1923, Raymond W. Kirkbryde, who was an instructor at the Department of Modern Languages at the University of Delaware, offered his plan for the university president. His plan, "Delaverskae Foreign Studies", was adopted. At a time when America loved to remain isolated, eight students sent to study in France.
From now on, dispatching work continued in various ways. One way to & # 39 is Winterim or winter session in which the student takes part in the educational program for a short period between the fall and spring semesters. The duration of training may range from one week to a whole academic year. Today, the United States, students choose the UK for study in other countries, and then in Italy and Spain.
On the other hand, on the & # 39; union of states with a & # 39; is the main host for students from abroad. It is "the world's largest international student population of almost 600 000 students who have decided to expand their education and experience in the United States. Almost 4% of all students enrolled on higher education, from & # 39 are foreign students. Grow." However, the rate of admission of students from the United States has changed over time and has not always been growing steadily.
For example, after the September 11 attacks on the Union Trade Center, limitations and restrictions that before & # 39 are to issue student visas, especially for the Arab Muslim countries, it has decreased the number of students. In the field of treatment of students from suspected countries, mostly Muslim and Arab countries, of course, in the Congress, it was proposed that "limits the right to obtain student visas."
Moreover, those who studied there, faced with the university to return the problem, even some of them are forced to leave school. These restrictions have been implemented, while student visas are a small percentage of people who enter the US on either ear. Therefore, harsh measures against the students look like something unreasonable.
Pave the way to the US Department of Education may, in the interests of some other reasons. Many students and scientists from other developing countries, prefer to stay in America and continue his scientific work due to social and political issues in their countries. This growth trend was known as "brain drain". "The term originated around 1960, when many British scholars and intellectuals have emigrated to the United States for a better working environment."
It "can simply be defined as the mass emigration of technically qualified people from one country to another. Brain drain can have many causes, such as political instability in the nation, the lack of opportunities, risks to health, personal conflicts, etc. Draining may also be called" human capital flight ", because it resembles the capital flight case, which involved the mass migration of financial capital."
The study of the causes of brain drain in various fields has led to a variety of reasons. For example, in the Middle East, "the absence of certain fixed assets and services & # 39 is the cause of mass migration from these areas, dictatorship, terrorism and Orthodox attitude -. It is the main obstacle to the development of the region.
In Asia, unemployment, population explosion and corrupt political system & # 39 are the main reasons for the migration of skilled workers from the area.
In countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. graduates, postgraduates, experienced and qualified specialists do not get enough opportunities for development and success. So what about the development of the dream these professionals leave their home country in search of a better future. Such a brain drain from the & # 39 is a great loss for these developing countries. "As the African continent, which" according to the study, Ethiopia has lost 75% of skilled workers for 1980-1991. "
Studying in another country can be a good way of liberation from other cultures, in addition to studying specific knowledge. Thus, if each country to improve employment opportunities for these graduates and receive welfare, then they win, sending the students instead of losses. Completed people with a broad attitude, knowing the experience of other nations and other experiences, such as self-contained result of life except family & # 39; and, perhaps, could think, manage and cope better.