1. The birth of the railways:
The distance between the United States so far, sparsely populated areas in the early 1800s were significant, and the expanse between them untouched, hostile and obstacles. Yet the need to deliver more of them. Railway tracks eventually provide them with the necessary arteries once the caterpillar has won technology and engines of sufficient power were designed to ensure that their absharpats.
Because of these conditions, investment in railways in the UK, and the US has accelerated, resulting from the & # 39 appeared the first problems with the rail, as, respectively, Liverpool and Manchester, which began its activities in 1830 and the Railway South South Carolina, progressively showing that the young industry would become inextricably linked with the production of goods and proved the prediction that this will be "the largest American business of the 19th century."
While companies were still small, private affairs, and covered again & # 39; the combined areas of the east coast from Maine to Georgia, a few adventurous companies have managed to resolve the path to the west through the Appalachians. The constant growth in demand for equipment for the transport of goods and commodities has caused more than 9,000 miles gasket track, although in New England and the Middle Atlantic states has thus far still has.
Ten years after the ever fruitless, only available for horses and bleak expanses were replaced by iron network of tracks in every state east of the Mississippi River, which is more expensive more than three times the total length of 1830.
Avoiding further expansion, the Civil War, however, can be attributed to the first conflict in the United States in which this method has played an important role in transporting troops and supplies. And when it was decided, the mileage on the highway is only reflected the increase in the speed of the locomotives that besieged him, 94 thousand in 1880, 193 million in 1900 and 254,000 in 1918, creating a unity coast to coast.
The railway industry is self-feeding and to establish and maintain its growth, providing materials factory, such as cotton, coal, iron and iron ore, and the waste from the finished product, which they contributed to the fabric, machinery, steel, and transformed the once agricultural nation in the process of Industry. Perhaps even more important, but the fact that the railroad served as a means for living, transporting immigrants in Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and Pennsylvania in the valley lacquered.
Practically replacing flyover line and river boats, rail road offered rate and long-distance transportation, reducing the previous six-day trip between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia in 1812 by former method to five hours at 1920 railway year.
While technology has replaced the horse-drawn carts victory, he began to catch the railway with his hands, which have become a victim. Construction of roads after the Second World War, along with an increase in the spread of cars and trucks, beginning to prove its superiority, speed and convenience, tempting goods and passengers from road to rail in the early 1950s, has not yet decreased demand. reduced maintenance, and sometimes giving up is not the right lines. Promotion of this decline is the fact that the once powerful but polluting steam engines began to be replaced by a quiet, clean diesel.
Today, the technology of coal combustion, which was important for the expansion of the country may be interpreted at the national historic site Scranton & Steamtown.
2. Rail Yard Scranton:
Valley of Pennsylvania and Wyoming were lacquered providers and recipients of a win-win growth. Attracting some 30 ethnic groups who were looking for an iron mill and steel, silk mill, a coal mine and work on the railroad, they provide anthracite coal, which fueled engine, contributed to the growth and transporting workers, seven of them & # 39; and materials in and out of the cities to which they gave rise.
Of the five major railroads that served the Scranton and were responsible for the creation of industrial complexes – Central New Jersey, Delaware and Hudson, Erie, New York, Ontario and Western, as well as lacquered and Wyoming Valley latter was created in 1853 George and Seldanam Scranton (after whom the city was named), who sought economic means of transporting its iron products, such as rails, which were used during the construction of the track.
On the & # 39; yadnavshy three existing companies Cayuga and Susquehanna, Lackawanna and Western, as well as Delaware and Cobb & Gap, they set up the Delaware, the Lackawanna and Western Railroad, which covered about 1000 miles the main and branch tracks between Hobaken, New Jersey and Albany New York. But perhaps even more important for today's visitor, they laid the groundwork for a broad national historical monument Steamtown, many of the structures that date from this period.
His final decline, along with Scranton & s, the economic activity which was inextricably linked with it, began when in 1920 the need for anthracite coal decreased gradually replacing gas and oil as domestic and industrial fuel sources, while diesel engines will soon replace a guy that needs to be stripped of the & # 39; sites that support it, especially in the repair shop, which closed in 1949.
Following the merger of Delaware, lacquered and Western longtime rival Erie lacquered gradually dims the lights at a railway yard in Scranton in 1960, and the plug was finally extended over 20 years, when it was absorbed into the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail).
3. Steamtown National Historic Site:
Located in the heart of Scranton on 40 acres of the former Delaware, lacquered and Western rail yard, modern collection consist of locomotives, passenger carriages and freight wagons, collected seafood processors New England F. Nelson Blount in the 1950s and 1960s, a circular configuration buildings surrounding the turntable and make Steamtown National historic Site, immediately transport the visitor into an earlier era.
"You're going to experience a part of the American Railroad, which did not exist half a century – the era of the engine," says the museum. "National Historic Site Steamtown was established October 30, 1986 to further public understanding and evaluation of the steam railway role in US development. This is the only place in the system of national parks, which tells about the steam railway tracks and this people are saying that it made it possible" .
Entrance fees and short train trip can be purchased on the outer box.
"Working on the Railroad rarely romantic or glamorous," – advises the museum. "Basically, it was hard work – dark, noisy, oily and sometimes dangerous Today machine operators continue to work on the repair and maintenance of locomotives and rolling stock on the site, and the tools and techniques are practically unchanged from 1930..
"The National Park Service has kept industrial working character of this historic Delaware, lacquered and Western Railway to introduce the visitor to Steamtown realistic image of the railway pair era."
Pass through the visitor center provides access to external countertops and plenty of exhibition buildings surrounding it.
The length of 90 feet, the turntable itself, such as a representative, which was used after 1900, served as the hub of the complex round the houses, its tracks, like the spokes radiated to each of the engine stall. If locomotives back into service, they agreed on a narrow, dipotassium pass, at the time the control cabin, located an operator rotates the rotation axle so that it is aligned with the designated stall.
Going head first, locomotive, still tsyagnuvshy their tenderness, moved into it, ensuring that it remains below the smoke attack chimneys.
If you planned to leave, the process has changed.
Here are the state of the engine Illinois Central Railroad, No. 790, built by the American Locomotive Company in 1903 and the configuration of the wheels 2-8-0, he was carrying freight from Tennessee. He was not retired until the 1950s.
18-minute film "Steel and the couple" offers a good introduction to the site.
The first building, located counterclockwise – a History Museum, whose exhibits highlight the evolution of the steam railway in the United States since 1850, which reflects the early railways, the associated life and their relationship with work, business and government, as well as possible, illustrating Delaware, lacquering and Western landmarks from the beginning of the 19th to mid-20th century.
Artificial waterways for exhibits, gave practical alternative to the then high price turnkey. In 1816 Deviit Clinton persuaded the legislature of New York State to establish the Erie Canal from Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie, creating an important and lucrative transport route from east to west, and encouraging the development of such systems is the eastern channel of channels. It took some time before the road was replaced waterways.
Although railroad tracks can be traced back to the ancient Roman carriages, the design of these trains, which worked flanges, wooden rails and wheels, began only in the 16-17 centuries to transport coal from the mines in the Ruhr Valley in Germany.
Improvement of small steam engines of low pressure, which are used for pumping water from the same mines, was the threshold to the early development of the steam engine, the first of which, in 1804 utvaryvshysya guide rails in Pen-y-Darren Whales.
The visitor may incorporate sight and sound of steam passenger railway tickets in the window, which provides a wait, in which you can hear Pyrkov smoke, and crashing bells tracks.
The passage through the doors that padyavlyayutstsa to platform features two beautifully restored cars from the tracks. The first issue of 1100 – is a steel carriage post office Louisville and Nashville built the American automobile and foundry company in 1914. Second, the business coach Erie number 3, was built around 1929 by Pullman and offered luxury two crew members and nine passengers with two cabins, two bedrooms, decorative rooms, kitchen, dining room and the dining room sports.
Significant both for the steam railway, and for the museum complex with the & # 39 is a round house, which was built in 1902, rebuilt in 1917 after a fire, which required the original design, and expanded two decades later.
"Round the house was found in the heart of Delaware, lacquered and Western households," says the museum. "Here, machine-daily service locomotives. Regular checks, easy repair of boilers and waste. Hissing steam hammering and unmanned engine provides a constant background for the mechanics."
Some highlights train, located in the respective coils include Canadian National Railways number 3254, Canadian National Railways number 2317, Delaware, lacquered and western number 565, nickel plate number 759 and number 6039 Great boot.
From 1902 in a separate round house was 46 stalls, but its current modernization program only three remained intact. Using standard industry practice, it is not heated, so it was thought that in these conditions the machine operators, who were warmly dressed, worked great.
Today, his three caterpillar engines and machines allow for a thorough check.
First, switch Spang, Chalfant and Company 0-6-0, bearing 9, it was delivered in April 1923. His right cut-off makes it possible to inspect the boiler and its inner workings.
Second, ancient style Rutland Caboose, number 28, was built in 1920 and has established a set of truck and four-wheel trucks.
Third, the same wooden Delaware, lacquered and Western train, number 43651, is tens of thousands who were transporting goods and products that protect against exposure to the outside & # 39; I and damage across the country.
Although these round houses were kernels of maintenance and repair of locomotives, lower overhead facilitate inspection pit them. The archaeologist digs brick pits since 1865 and 1902/1937 years, finding its advanced technology the construction of external artifacts between the two sections of the round house.
National Historic Site Steamtown & Museum, kissed the earlier of the two, offers projects for locomotive design, architecture, railroad, Shlyakhova technique, signals, communications, and security.
The full economic potential of the railways, was quickly he explains, implemented after the locomotive paragmatychna demonstrated its capabilities, and it has evolved significantly, stanavivshysya more powerful and using stronger and smoother the rails when they are transporting passengers and cargo across the country . However, the development of signaling and communication systems industry has made more secure and reliable.
Working with a small, rolling tea kettles, steam locomotives increased in size, strength and finesse, using more steel for building and consuming more coal in its operation.
This progress can be obtained from the profiles of the locomotive types that are moved by those who are not attracted to the cargo, to the two-wheel, four-wheel and articulated using the front rotary engines.
Integrated shop museum shop, located outside the boundaries of the round, it is located in the state of Delaware, and West varnished concrete and steel Pancake house since 1912, which was located close enough to the round house for convenience, but far enough away to minimize the damage to personnel and rolling stock.
The inter & # 39; EASURES double-section have a bookstore / gift shop, located in a former warehouse and basement, containing up to 14 tanks of lubricating oil required for lubrication of the engine components, including the car, the engine, the mineral raw materials, turpentine, gasoline, warning lamp and the types of cylinders. Visitors can take a peek into the pit at ground level, which served as the location for distribution.
Through the tracks in the yard, the headquarters of the foreman. Since 1902, it is one of the oldest structures that have survived in Delaware, lacquered and West.
However, nothing is more symbolic celebration of the engine than the site of the Union Pacific 4-8-8-4 "Big Boy" number 4012, was built in November 1941, the American Locomotive Company in Schenectady, New York. Today it is one of the eight survivors of the original 25 and the only east of Wisconsin.
Pulling 132.10 feet, carrying 28 tons of coal and 24,000 liters of water, with a loaded weight of 1,189,500 pounds of soft, sticky and developing strength 135.375 pounds, he, nevertheless, able to reach speeds of over 80 km / h, dragging a long, heavy units and freight trains over the steep presentations east of Salt Lake City over the mountains Vasatch. It represents a top steam engine technology.
Final dive visitor in an era can be achieved during a 30-minute train ride four miles, which is called "Scranton Limited" from the yard, extended locomotive Baldwin number 26, as indicated by coal-black soot thrown his stack and sometimes envelop passenger cars windows on a high ceiling, which complete with seats and luggage racks. Making your way between the rolling stock and on switches and groom, he concludes visit to National Historic Site Steamtown.