Tour of the railway line Stourbridge

Smoky gray clouds, like the steam locomotive emissions with the century, sailed over another rolling green mountains of Northern traditions in the recent memory of the day. They have not been past hints of the railway?

Road weed track, supporting diesel engine, the central capital of New York, stainless steel and three maroon carriages, wagons Pennsylvania near the center for Wayne County visitors were prepared to 13:00, runs 25 miles to the Hole and Lackawaxen . "Lackawaxen Limited", which is managed by the departments of Delaware, and the railway company Litvavaksen Stourbridge. With the last rail, apparently grew railway modernity.

Working Chamber of Commerce Wayne County and opening up service tourist trains in September 1979, Storbryzh line lasted more than three decades as the previous transmission, stopping its activities on December 11, 2011, to the present state of Delaware, Lackawaxen, and Stourbridge Railroad Company, who led the team Myles, re-directed rails as of 9 mine in 2015.

50 minutes drive from Scranton to Honesdeyla, familiarization with the Main Street, in-pointing County Historical Society Museum and the Wayne collection of pamphlets, brochures, newsletters, manuals and literature associated with the terrain. wooden platform surrounded by an increase in the number of train passengers.

The history of the train railways, though silently thin, seemed to speak to me. A look at the coaches pointed to the city Victorian architecture, which is saved pocket seemed withstood time tick, and next to a brick in the window of the ticket sports center for visitors was annexed track replica wooden coal cars on the slope displayed. Rails clearly links the city to its past.

A plaque outside the Historical Society announced: "Delaware and Hudson Canal Term waterway, which on & # 39; unites rivers Hudson and Delaware was built in 1825 to 1828 the applicant reached the railway Gravity Carbondale Over 70 years outlet anthracite…. in this region. "

When I heard the screams conductor "All on board" – a virtual tons and excellent echo the instructions that were given cars for almost two centuries, – and walked to the car with my passengers, I realized that something about the area has attracted me to his past.

Where, for example, it was the Delaware and Hudson Canal, and what does he have to do this "gravity railways", which seemed Honesdeyl synonymous?

Sitting on his seat in the car number 1993 "Clinton Leech", which is an English actor, playwright and director, who lived between 1855 and 1934, once directed by the Central Railroad of New Jersey, I thought about the philosophy that separates Sir Arthur Pinera . "This past again tabled through another gate," he philosophically.

As the train will ply the rails to their destination in the present, I would have tried to trace the history of the area and its history.

Short push the locomotive, which was preceded by a mandatory whistle, increased voltage vehicle connection, until the chain formed by four wagons, not leaped forward in solidarity, crossing Route 191, where the cars were assembled as witnesses his departure.

Tense timber, against protesters squeals circles, sent Lackawaxen Limited green tunnel when he called parallel about Lackawaxen River, whose surface oil, like a mirror, reflecting the trees, before the squeeze past the wagon and carriage kavuzavyya siding.

Increased speed manifested as a rocking coach as side chair – excuse rhyme – took her away now, bringing me to the area of ​​the past. Dismantle it together, I ordered mind!

Channels and railways there are geographical and logical origin. In the case of Honesdale they seemed the same.

Located in Wayne County, in northeastern Pennsylvania, the town was 35 miles from Scranton (myself carrying it), and 150 miles from Philadelphia. While it was not very important.

Founded in 1798 itself county was named in honor of General Anthony Wayne, the hero of the Revolutionary War, gained fame when finished resistance in India and destroyed the Northwest Indian confederacy at the Battle of felled timber.

Nortgemptan separated from the county in 1798, Wayne County was created, which today covers 744 square miles.

Its location the government changed over the years – from Vilsanvilya to Milfarda, Beten, and, as of 4 My 1841, the same Honesdeyl where the train originated. I wonder where it came from his name, but, more importantly, which led people in certain places to start? Perhaps out and out and something to carry in one or both directions.

The word on the historical society, Wayne County, which I wrote down in my notebook, struck me: "Anthracite". I do not know if it was a household word in Pennsylvania, but it seemed important enough to ukapatstsa in laptop on its meaning. And, of course, to "dig" was, unconsciously, quite the right word, with which it is associated.

Since it is extracted from the oldest geological formations of Earth and therefore has been subjected to the greatest amount of heat and pressure, anthracite coal and varied could produce much more heat than its softer, geologically young colleague, causing a great need in developing countries in the Americas, for arson of his home, factory furnaces and steam engines and locomotives – not that they were around, at least not yet.

Although heavy production in the country in the late 1800's to early 1900's exhausted most of its supplies, except that is still in a very deep, hard-to-deposits, he was one of the three major fossil fuels, along with oil and natural gas.

Thus, for a country that is developing, more and more industrial, it was the equivalent of gold. I believe that I wanted to get out of there.

Again, the answer seemed to be inscribed in the board of the Historical Society: "Delaware and Hudson Canal." It's time to dig further.

William Vurts was an early explorer of what was then called anthracite mine, considering the rich northeastern Pennsylvania a source of energy as a potentially rich. Buying in 1812 large land holdings, together with his brothers Charles and Maurice for a little money, he seems to have seen the value of which very few people did.

Extraction of coal was the first step in his plan. The second was to transport it to the market, especially in Philadelphia. However, this method using a barge-traplyayuchyh channels still proved to be less effective because most of the commodity value of coal was lost altogether. You should have more and better. He believed that there is.

Inspired by a newly constructed Erie Canal and pushed by the idea that this waterway could put New York, he realized that he could create his own – in this case the plaque noted Delaware and Hudson Canal, which became the first route distance transport, chartered by the State of Pennsylvania and New York in 1823.

Penetrating into a narrow valley between the city and the mountains Shavagunk Catskill, he moved 108 miles by water to the Hudson River near Kingston.

Why not hire the best to execute your plan? That's exactly what they did Wurth and brothers signed a contract with the engineer Erie Canal Benjamin Wright for evaluation and planning artery, after which ground was broken in July 1825 their vision of 1.6 million dollars, which requires three years of construction and 2500 workers, has been transformed. in October 1828 in the water flowing water.

Its origin is between Kingston and Roosendaal, NY, where it joins the Hudson River, associated with New York, the creek Rondout to Elnvil, passing through the villages of Sandburg Creek Murder Homovaka and Basher Killy through Neversink River (which a reputation to maintain!) in Port Jervis. Continuing in a northwesterly direction along the Delaware River, New York, he went to Pennsylvania along the north shore of the river Lakavaksen (now decorated the left side window, my coach) to Honesdale.

Vision from time to time exceed the technology. This phenomenon is, of course, is played here. The water was brisk, supported by the barge, but move a little to travel from origin to destination, leaving the mules "engine" that allows to cover 15 to 20 miles a day. Supersonic they were not.

You can lead a horse to water, according to the proverb, but not necessarily close to it, leaving people in a primitive GPS-guide on the road.

They also periodically pumped mounting the water from the barge and refueled quadrupeds engines known in the 19th century as "feeding". Earnings were all 3.00 dollars a month, not per day.

Necessity is definitely caused innovation in the project, including "civil engineering" as aquariums, covering the river to reduce the time of travel and discover the cement in the area of ​​Roosendaal, John Roebling, who later would use it in the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge.

Channel, of course, facilitates the transport of Kingston, and then on Gudjon in New York, but as coal from the mines was transferred to barges are waiting for? It returned to the board.

It mentions the term, which I had never heard, and especially do not need, "Gravity Railways". Why emphasize the invisible force which has ensured that the trains were on their tracks – or, in general, everything else on earth? Internet, here I come!

That's interesting. I was struck again how human ingenuity supplanted technical engineers. Since the locomotive, while diesel power is now pulling my train, the light in my window, despite the perception of contrast, remained motionless. This gravity railroad used a concept that was almost the reverse, so that the engine is not moving, but at least the cars, which he was carrying, moving.

Muazichnyya channels through the mountains to Honessdeyla for isolation and further travel by waterway Delaware and Hudson were overwhelming, resulting in laying tracks on which the sleigh and wagon loaded with coal, can work as an alternative for the first segment of the border with New York travel.

But again, Benjamin Wright, allowing the wheels of his brain to turn (it is, after all, that made him an engineer), provided for those who train turning on the tracks, and offering railway based on the concept laid down in the State of Delaware and name Gravita Gudsana that is, at least partially, it will operate on this natural provided by ground forces.

What goes up, as it is known, should be reduced. But this first part has created a problem, because while gravity has performed an exciting, entirely tedious work, the second, the first was the need of some type of engine.

Beginning in the coal fields of Carbondale, at an altitude of 1,200 feet, a 16-mile mile stretched to Honesdale, first rising to 1907 feet in the Rux & Gap through a run of five planes inclined to the west, whose cars were tightened vertically. using stationary steam engines or winch, and then went horizontally through them. Three pamyanshayuchyya breaks down on the east side, to the elevation of 975 feet, although there is, to be sure, gravity replaces the entire need for motive power.

Compound steam engines and machines changes as the process improvement, since the two drums and the chain moving to hemp cable diameter of 7.5 inches and ending steel.

Machines themselves were open, but crowned with roofs and internally provided for the bench seat. In the opposite direction, the horse dragged them from Honesdale, before they could be attached to the cable Maosichnay mountains, and reduced aircraft.

16 miles otherwise relatively flat land created a small engineering obstacles. Or did it happen? Here, no stationary steam engines, no team of horses have not been effective, with the latter demanded their own care and maintenance. Needed a device with the engine mechanical, wood or coal engine power, but it was not only his unique location. The answer to this dilemma can now be simple (my train pulled one), but not necessarily time. At one time, all that people take for granted, was an innovation of engineering technology, new progress, which will be announced in the world.

United Kingdom, in the event, not the United States, became the home of the railroad. However, at this time of painful passage through the channel on this side of the Atlantic has pushed technology that could improve it with the other hand.

However, if there were stationary steam engines, but what about the practicality of their refinement, so that they can turn into moving?

Skeptics were rampant. However, once again the engineer needed – in this case, the Delaware and the chief engineer John B. Jervis Gudsana to turn his vision into reality thoughts on the way.

Making sure that this potential exists not only in the fact that he is the key to the future mode of transport on the railways, he sent his young pratezhera, Horace Elena, across the pond in 1828 to brainstorm together with their own British engineers. , Reliable, efficient engine, which is able to overcome considerable distance in a relatively short time. He is equally tasked to acquire the necessary iron bar to cover the surface of another wooden walkway.

The distance across the ocean nothing perverts common faith between Jervis and George Stephenson and his son Robert, who were considered experts in guiding the young railway industry that this is the future. They were to develop just such a locomotive for "Liverpool and Manchester railway."

John Urpet Rastryk, issued a patent for a steam engine back in 1814 and has since created his own company Foster Rastryk in Shturbryzh, signed a contract for construction of the first locomotive Gravity Railroad – eight-ton, 2 914.90 dollar "the Stourbridge Lion" as indicated, because it was carrying pot painted with a lion's head.

Subject to their own intermodal transport, he was first sent to Shturbryzha before being loaded onto a ship for a transatlantic crossing, arriving in New York, my 13 1829, where he took a static demonstration at the foundry.

Three months later, on August 5, he was placed on the designated route in Honessdeyl, and he was ready for his introductory course, which Jervis wrote Delaware and president Gudsana Bolton: "We tan it tomorrow or the next day," adding that " anxiety increases when we come to the period when our efforts should approach them experiment a stone. "

By opening the throttle, Horace Allen got a new engine shocked breath and pat on the three-mile wooden walkway, faced with wrought straps that fit on a 30-foot height, a rolling rack Lackawaxen, during the inauguration of steam locomotive service in the United States.

"The first locomotive of America & # 39; Leo the Stourbridge, & # 39; sent Honesdale and all Wayne County in the history books when the August 8, 1829 a strange iron horse," Feet horse and lion depicted in the boiler head, killed the way in this the city – Wayne county Herald, "notes", "reports" Volume 32, number 1, January-March 2017).

Since the installation of the engine smoke was too high to clear the upper bridge, you could go only to Zelivila before he was to return, it is now focused back. However, on this day the story was written on the tracks. America entered the era of the railroad.

"I started at a significant rate, safely passed the curve over the stream, and soon heard a bang" big meeting ", – explained later, Allen." After two or three miles, I redid the valves and back without crashing to the place of starting, completing thus the first railway travel on the Western Hemisphere & # 39; and ".

His glory was short. Although the success of the engine can not be discounted, the same track on which he was, was not. She was too weak to maintain a constant movement of locomotives and rail cars, which are charged with coal, and its consolidation costs were exorbitant.

Zahovvayuchysya in Honesdale barn until 1848, Stourbridge Lion was moved to Carbondale, where his boiler was removed and sold in fixed order, leaving a trail for horses after them through the boards were laid.

Although it was the end of the line for the "Leo", he certainly paved the way for more advanced engines and properly reinforced steel rails that are on the & # 39; combined and contributed to the growth of the country.

Its boiler, cylinder and walking the world were acquired in the Washington Smithsonian Institute, and partly original locomotive exhibit hall in his vehicle.

Now it made sense – that is, there is a second board near Historical Society Museum Wayne County, which states: "Replica of the famous Lion Storbrizha, the first steam locomotive that runs on rails in the United States, August 8, 1829, is located next to. Eclipse them, the original passenger car on the railroad Delaware and Hudson Gravity ".

Currently, it also makes sense why Honesdeyl considered "the birthplace of America's commercial railway".

Само грамадства размяшчалася ў цаглянай канструкцыі, пабудаванай у 1860 г., калі штаб-кватэра кампаніі «Дэлавэр і Хадсон» і мястэчка, некалі вядомы пад назвай Dyberry Forks, былі перайменаваны ў Філіпа Хона, аднаго з транспартных сістэм канала. планіроўшчыкі. Я таксама даведаўся, што кропка майго цягніка калісьці была ягоным катэрам, або пераносным вуглём, ад гравітацыйнай чыгункі да баржы для 108-мільнай дарогі ў Кінгстан. Драўляны аўтамабіль, прагледжаны перад пасадкай, сімвалізаваў яго.

Музей гісторыі гістарычнага таварыства акругі Уэйн, поўнамаштабная рэпрадукцыя паравозаў 0-40, пабудаваны ў 1933 г. у горадзе Колоні, Нью-Ёрк, крамы чыгуначнай кампаніі штата Дэлавэр і Хадсан, дэманстраваўся ў краіне прагрэсу. Выстава ў Чыкага і на Нью-Ёркскім кірмашы 1939-1940 гадоў, перш чым быць пастаўленым на пастаяннае дэманстраванне ў яго цяперашнім месцы.

Паводле музея, ён мае 17,4-футовую колавую базу, рухавік і далікатную даўжыню, 4,3-футовую каляіну і кацёл дыяметрам чатыры футы. Ён важыў ад сямі да дзесяці тон. Спальваючы вугаль, ён вырабляў дзевяць конскіх сіл і прыцягваў намаганні ад 1,750 да 2000 фунтаў.

Суседні салон-вагон "Зацьменне" з яго попельным салонам, 20 элегантна мяккіх, рэверсіўных сядзенняў, ручной столь, драўляныя аканіцы і глюкамайстар – гэта тыя, якія звычайна выкарыстоўваюць гравітацыйная чыгунка паміж Honesdale і Carbondale. У 1920 годзе ён меў агульную даўжыню 29,3 фута, дыяметр колаў 24 цалі і столь 6,9 фута.

Штуршок майго трэнера вывеў мяне з мінулага раёна і перадаў мяне ў сучаснасць. Бляск сонца, пранізваючы металічную столь, перавёз раку Лякаваксен, па берагах якой цягнік працягваў змяя, у люстэрка слюды.

Крычачы з пратэстуючым віскам, калі гармонік вагонаў расцягнуў свае закругленыя муфты, а потым, урэгуляваўшы адносна прамалінейную цішыню, цягнік наблізіўся да Белых млыноў.

Размешчаны паміж Honesdale і Hawley, прамежкавы прыпынак Lackawaxen Limited на маршруце 6 у графстве Уэйн, яго цяперашняя сонная, рэчная адзінота служыла рэзкім кантрастам да прамысловай мітусні, якую ён калісьці прапаноўваў. І блакітны каменны будынак, які цягнецца да коміна, хуткаплынна бачны праз расчыстку дрэў, калі цягнік, які ляснуў над чыгуначным пераездам, даў крыху больш, чым намёк на гэтую эпоху. Як я даведалася, шкляная фабрыка калісьці мела славу Дорфлінгера.

Пасля службы васьмігадовага навучання ў выдзіманні, рэзанні і ўпрыгожванні шкла ў французскім Cristalleries de Saint-Louis, Крысціян Дорфлінгер іміграваў у ЗША ў 1865 годзе, пасяліўшыся ў Белых Млынах, штат Пенсільванія, і заснаваў уласную шкляную фабрыку. Першапачаткова складаючы сем невялікіх дамоў рабочых з нахільным дахам, якія нагадвалі дамы ў Францыі, ён да 1869 г. пашырыў комплекс, уключыўшы 33 з іх, што дазволіла размясціць 182 супрацоўнікаў і іх сем'і.

Яго вядомы, вытанчана выразаны свінцовы крышталь, сінонім элегантнасці, неўзабаве ўпрыгожыў шматлікія элітныя рэзідэнцыі, у тым ліку і Белы дом.

Нягледзячы на ​​тое, што завод быў зачынены ў 1921 годзе, яго мураваны будынак, некаторыя дамы рабочых, офіс кампаніі і крама зноў адчыніліся для наведвання.

Яшчэ адзін спрынт праз дэндрарыйны тунэль папярэднічаў іскрам, віскам і шліфавальным колавым чыгуначным транспартам, які арыштаваў імпульс цягніка і прыпыніў яго на скрыўленым участку каляіны побач з абліцаванай драўлянай пляцоўкай Хоўлі. у 13:45 пасля дзевяці мілі усходніх паходаў праз Паўночныя горы Покона.

Як і Honesdale, ён меў свае чыгуначныя карані.

Першапачаткова вядомы як Паупак Эдзі, ён прыняў сваё цяперашняе імя ад Ірада Хоўлі, прэзідэнта вугальнай кампаніі Пенсільваніі, які пабудаваў уласную гравітацыйную чыгунку, убачыўшы значэнне, якое яна прадставіла ў сувязі з Дэлавэрскім і Хадсонскім каналам. Адзін з яго аўтамабіляў дэманструецца ў публічнай бібліятэцы.

Заменены стандартнымі паравозамі ў 1885 г., ён уступіў у чыгунку Эры і Ваёмінг Валі, якая ў тым самым годзе ўступіла ў рэйс з Хоўлі ў Данмор.

Шлях перасячэння 6 і праходжанне эстакады, Lackawaxen Limited, даў позірк на дамы, якія вызначалі Хоўлі, пачаў пранікненне лесу на больш два яго адрэзкі. Інтэрнат «метал-метал», які рухаўся коламі на трэк, безумоўна, даваў разуменню трэніроўкі: як крэмень, іскры іх адпраўлялі вусікі перад узгараннем перад носпірам, а іх віск прабіваў вушы, як пазногці на дошцы.

Кароткія, белыя, агароджы, якія нагадваюць маркі, працягвалі мігаць па левых бакавых вокнах: JC 121, JC 120, JC 119 – рэшткі рэйса "Горад Джэрсі", над якім цягнік зараз практычна скакаў, адлічваючы да пачатак яго лініі.

Таксама ніколі не памяншалася від гледжання, была рака Lackawaxen, якая ў асноўным працякала праз сельскія горы Паўночны Покон і мела дрэнажную зону плошчай 598 квадратных міль. Ён праходзіў праз Хонесдейл і Хоўлі, дзе да яго далучыўся з паўднёвага захаду крык Уолленпаупак, а адтуль працягваўся на ўсход для паступлення ў раку Дэлавэр, у горад Лакаваксен, на цягнік цягніка.

Гэта, у адказ на маё пытанне пры пасадцы, быў транспартавальным вуглём канал.

Служыўшы транспартнай артэрыяй з пачатку 18-га стагоддзя, яна спрыяла паплаўленню павязаных бярвенняў да ракі Дэлавэр, прызначанай альбо для Істона, Пенсільваніі, альбо Трэнтана, штат Нью-Джэрсі, штогод выносячы каля 50 мільёнаў дошак піламатэрыялаў. Ці магло гэта быць сапраўдным паходжаннем ідэі па транспарціроўцы вугалю?

Кампанія Delaware and Hudson Canal, тады найбольшае прыватнае камерцыйнае прадпрыемства, мела шэраг 28 замкаў, якія паднялі ўзровень вады на 278 футаў, але, як і ўсе раннія бачання, калі тэхналогія зацямніла свой погляд, яна стала недальнабачнай. .

Калі было зразумела, што транспарціроўка пасажыраў, грузаў, піламатэрыялаў і вугалю толькі ажыццяўляецца па маршруце Нью-Джэрсі ў 1898 годзе, то захапляліся, але тады павольная і неэфектыўная сістэма транспарціроўкі гравітацыі чыгуначнага і каналавага транспарту была лішняй. Апошнія плаціны былі пераадолены, а вада сцякла.

Я мог сабе толькі ўявіць, колькі гэтых прыступкаў для прасоўвання павінна быць выкарыстана на працягу ўсёй гісторыі.

Калі тармазы апошні раз праглядалі па шырокай крывой перад крыху драўлянай лаўкай, якая адзначала інакш гарадок Lackawaxen, а 15 гадзіне пасля чарговага адрэзка 16 км ад Хоўлі і 25-кіламетровага ад Хонесдейла У трох кроках да зямлі я спусціўся з вагона.

Дарога за цягніком прабралася да мінулага раёна, і пасля таго, як паравоз пераставіць на сайдынг, вярнула мяне да майго паходжання ў Хонесдейл, пакінуўшы да таго часу цішыню сярод узвышаючых дрэў і іглічнай іголкі, засыпанай зямлёй, Запавет чалавечага бачання і гісторыі, дзякуючы тэхналогіям, ён выявіўся тут. Я падумаў пра прароцтва сэра Артура Пінэра, – што мінулае было толькі сучаснасцю, якое ўвайшло праз іншую браму. Ці мог я сёння гэта зрабіць, я задумаўся?

Крыніцы

Бюлетэнь гістарычнага таварыства павета Уэйн "Том 32, № 1, студзень-сакавік 2017 года.